INternational COmmercial Terms


ARDLC – AUTO-REVOLVING DOCUMENTARY LETTER OF CREDIT: Reserve money for the payment of any contract, if the seller fulfill your part in the period (form of payment). Authorization to give buyer for confirmation of funds from the “LOI” for payment of any contract.

ASWP – ANY SAFE WORLD PORT: Delivery of the port of loading in choosing the buyer.


BC – CONFIRMING BANK: Is a confirmation that the bank agreed to honor the letter of credit issued by other banks. Thereafter banks of the buyer and seller talking among themselves via “SWIFT” to display the “POF” and “POP”.

BCL – BANK COMFORT LETTER: Banking certificate of financial capacity. Letter is issued by the bank of the seller to purchaser. This letter indicates that the buyer have sufficient funds to cover the cost of the order. On letterhead bank with complete information and consent to be held to a Soft Probe (verification of funds) the bank account detailed, via “SWIFT” between banks.

BG – BANK GUARANTEE: Is a financial instrument issued by a bank, on behalf of your customer for the benefit of the other party, with whom the client’s bank, incurs a financial obligation. In the case, if the customer of the bank, do not do the payment of a contract, the recipient of bank guarantee, you can use and receive this payment.

BG 100% – PAYABLE INSTRUMENT: Bank guarantee issued and must be guaranteed by a world bank “Top 25”, is irrevocable, accept and transferable. She should also cover the whole of the amount of the contract and must be paid to vista, recognized by submission of documents.

BL – BILL OF LADING: It is a document that define the conditions of carriage of a load. This document is established by carrier and delivered to seller when the load it received and made aboard the ship. The bill of lading is an essential document, for proof that the product really been sent, and that the carrier assumes responsibility for ensuring delivery to the purchaser. Request for payment by using a charging letter of credit, the seller shall deliver the “BL” consignia to a bank or the issuer. Standby letters of credit are not normally used. If a seller hopes have payment guaranteed by the bank of buyer, a letter of credit is often used.


CI – COMMERCIAL INVOICE: Receipt for a transaction and or goods purchased (invoice) indicating the sender or seller and the receiver or purchaser. A commercial invoice should contain an itemized list of the merchandise with the complete description of goods with their unit value and extended total value. Depending on the Customs requirements of the destination country, there may be additional requirements, statement or clauses that must appear as well.

CIF – COST INSURED FREIGHT: This means that the seller bears the cost of transportation as well as its safe, until the product to reach the port of destination.

COMMODITY – MERCHANDISE: Goods are produced in large scale and marketed in the world or in the form of contracts in bags of goods. There are four types of commodity: agricultural, mineral, financial and environmental.

CONFIRMED – CONFIRMED LETTER OF CREDIT: The issuing bank gives assurance that payment will be made by the bank pays or warning, without restriction provided they obey the instructions contained therein.


DC – DRAFT CONTRACT: Is a draft of the contract what is done and sent to the seller buyer. Buyer has the opportunity to make changes and send you back to seller for consideration. This process continues until both parties are satisfied with the terms of agreement.

DEMURRAGE – PENALT FOR DELAY: Demurrage meaning or is a penalty for exceeding free time allowed for loading or unloading at a pier or freight terminal. Payment for the use or retention of the vessel or container for time beyond the requirements of the cargo operations and / or unloading.

DIVISIBLE – DIVISIBLE LETTER OF CREDIT: That contain express provision contemplating their use fractionated, usually when there is agreement split shipments of goods.

DLC – DOCUMENTARY LETTER OF CREDIT: Provides the necessary guarantee. A Documentary Letter of Credit is issued by a bank, guaranteeing payment to the supplier on condition that the correct documents (specified in the terms and conditions outlined on issue) are presented.


EXW – EX WORKS: Merchandise will be a withdrawal by buyer in the seller establishment, or in another place (factory, warehouse, etc.) The same are not cleared for export, and also cannot be loaded on any collecting vehicle. buyer assumes with all costs and risks of transportation. If included in the contract of sale, the seller assumes the risks and costs of charging in out of merchandise. The “EXW” should not be used if the buyer cannot be held responsible directly or indirectly, procedures for export. This agreement can be used in any mode of transport.


FCO – FULL CORPORATE OFFER: It is issued by the seller when the preliminary stages of negotiation have been finalized, such as issuing a letter of intent by the buyer, and the realization of a “Soft Probe” (proof of funds) in their accounts by the seller. An FCO is a document that defines the conditions of sale.

FFDCL – FULLY FUNDED DOCUMENTARY LETTER OF CREDIT: A written promise of payment provided by a buyer to a seller that is guaranteed to clear by a particular bank. Once an FFDLC document is presented by the seller to the involved bank, the bank is obliged to remit full payment to the seller.

The seller may be required to fulfill certain conditions, such as providing proof of shipment of the goods sold to the buyer, before collecting payment from the bank. This method of payment provides assurance to the seller that the buyer has the necessary funds for the transaction and ready for remittance to the seller upon completion of the sale.

FFSCL – DRAF OF FINANCIAL PAYMENT INSTRUMENT: Document that is attached to the purchase by the letter of credit stating when will be the payments.

FOB – FREE ON BOARD: Which states that no price of merchandise transactional include all costs for transportation to the port of shipment, as well as all duties and fees on the merchandise incidents being brought aboard. The responsibility of the seller ends when crossing the cargo ship balustrade.

FOR / FOT – FREE ON RAIL / FREE ON TRUCK: The goods must be shipped by the seller, free of costs in season or in railway wagon train. Thereafter as costs are for account of the buyer.

FRC – FREE CARRIER: The seller’s responsibility ends when the merchandise is delivered to the carrier or shipper thereof. The responsibility stops at the critical point, which may be the container terminal.


IB – ISSUING BANK: It is the buyer’s bank issuing bank guarantees and letters of credit on behalf of his client.

ICC – INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF COMMERCE: A non-governmental organization serving as a policy advocate on world business.

ICLC – IRREVOCABLE CONFIRMED LETTER OF CREDIT: Irrevocable letter of credit confirmed by another bank, usually in the jurisdiction of the recipient. The database confirmation undertakes to make payment on the letter of credit on behalf of the issuing bank when the beneficiary meets the conditions described in the letter of credit.

ICPO – IRREVOCABLE CORPORATE PURCHASE ORDER: This is a document issued by buyer and contains details of quantity, product type and other conditions under which the purchaser would like to proceed on the sale. Once approved by the seller this is considered official and the company is required to complete the sale. This is a “ICPO” which includes the company’s bank details so that the seller can perform a Soft Probe on buyer’s bank account to make sure that there are sufficient funds to cover the cost of purchase. A “BCL” is one of the first information a potential buyer must provide the seller to negotiate an agreement. There is, however, a settlement agreement to the seller or the bank liable in any way.

ILC – IRREVOCABLE LETTER OF CREDIT: Issued by the bank of the buyer to the seller, ensuring payment on submission of documents stipulated. How an irrevocable document, it cannot be canceled, and the buyer’s bank is legally obliged to make payment when the beneficiary meets the conditions set out in the letter of credit.

IMFPA – IRREVOGABLE MASTER FEE PROTECTION AGREEMENT: It is part of the contract of confidentiality and integrity “NCNDA”, which should be completed and signed by all participants of the negotiation.

INCOTERM – INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL TERMS: The set of international standards for the uniform interpretation of common contract clauses in international trade. INCOTERMS 2000, formulated in concert with many international entities, comprises the latest revisions and should now be used exclusively.

INVOICE – ACCOUNT: After signing the contract, the seller sends an “Invoice” total description which formalizes the purchase price the amount etc. Seller sends the PDF “Invoice” to the buyer who will deliver to your bank to open letter of credit to operate or not operative, + / – 10 to 15 days.


LC / LOC – LETTER OF CREDIT: An “LC” is an agreement whereby a bank, acting at the request of an importer and in accordance with the instructions under the contract, undertakes to make a payment to an exporter against presentation of a series of documents and procedures required within a specified time limit, provided they comply with the terms and conditions of credit. The “LC” in principle may be issued as non-operational, and will be activated later in the presentation of “POP” (Proof of Product).

LCNT – LETTER OF CREDIT NON-TRANSFERABLE: The seller must wait 90 days to receive the money.

LCT – LETTER OF CREDIT TRANSFERABLE: For the seller – discounted at the time.

LOI – LETTER OF INTENT: A letter of intent is a document issued by the buyer to the seller indicating the buyer’s interest to enter into negotiations with the seller, the letter of intent is not legally binding but provides a starting point for negotiations.


M / T – METRIC TON: 1000 Kilos.

MERCOSUR – COMMON MARKET SOUTH: A trade alliance between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, with Chile and Bolivia as associate members.



NAFTA – NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT: A free trade agreement comprising the U.S.A., Canada, and Mexico.

NCNDA – NON-CIRCUMVENTION, NON-DISCLOSURE WORKING AGREEMENT: It is a contract which should be completed and signed by all participants involved in international trade negotiations, which should be submitted along with “ICPO”, thus guaranteeing the rights of all commissioners, governed and supervised by “ICC” – International Chamber of Commerce de Pariz (I.C.C. 400/500/600).


PB – PRIME BANK: The top 25 banks in the world. These banks are trusted preferred.

PBG – PERFORMANCE BOND GARANTEE: It is issued by the seller to the buyer’s safety. It is a guarantee which ensures that the seller will comply with the terms of the contract. Typically issued in value of the shipment, in case the vendor break the contract and do not supply the product that was stipulated in the contract. A “Performance Bond” is enabled only after the “LC” (Letter of Credit) the buyer is approved. This approval is made between banks via “SWIFT”.

PI – PAYMENT INSTRUMENTS: If on contract for 12 months payment instrument is issued today, the product will only be charged after 45 days, 13 months are required to perform 12 months of transfers it is always considered margin an edge if transfers take 13 or 14 months in delays unpredictable or because the buyer cannot unload ships or other reason.

PIC – PHYTOSANITARY INSPECTION CERTIFICATE: A certificate issued by an exporting countries’ Department of Agriculture indicating that a shipment has been inspected and is free of harmful pests and plant diseases.

POF – PROOF OF FUNDS: Usually the test of resources is obtained by performing a “Soft Probe” (simple check) on the accounts of the buyer. Proof of funds is normally required for a seller to continue with the negotiation of a sale of commodities.

POP – PROOF OF PRODUCTS: Set of documentary evidence that the product will be displayed only after opening the letter of credit operative or not operative, held between the bank of the buyer and seller via SWIFT.


RLC – REVOLVING LETTER OF CREDIT: Can be used multiple times. These financial instruments are often put into practice, when a seller must make multiple shipments to one buyer, allowing the seller to request payment for each shipment without being sent a letter of credit for each load.

RWA – READY WILLING AND ABLE: This is a document issued by the buyer’s bank confirming that your account has sufficient funds in the account and is willing and able to assume the contract. As standard the document is displayed next to “ICPO.


SBLC – STAND BY LETTER OF CREDIT: It has nothing to do with the classic documentary letter of credit, which is used for international trade. A “SBLC” is the US’s known bank guarantee “BG”. The code “SWIFT” to a “SBLC” is “MT-760. Acts as a guarantee of the buyer’s bank that there are sufficient funds to cover all costs of shipping.

SGS / CIQ – INSPECTION SOCIETE GENERAL DE SURVEILLANCE: Before the product leaves the port of sale, an inspection is done by “SGS”, the independent inspection company most respected in the world. Inspections “SGS” guarantee tranquility to the buyer, who can ensure that the product is high quality. Presented by the seller and their expense.

SP – SOFT PROBE: It is a confirmation method used by banks for a vendor to evaluate the ability to pay a buyer. Such consultation is not recorded in the register bank of the buyer is nothing beyond the confirmation or non-availability of balance that is passed to the seller.

SPOT – DELIVERY AGAINST PAYMENT: When buying one SPOT is not necessary guarantees as purchases by monthly contract. For payment may be opened on the bank of a buyer “MT-103” non-operational.

SWIFT – SOCIETY FOR WORLDWIDE INTER BANK FINANCIAL TELECOMMUNICATION: Swift is a closed, private telecoms network whose subscribers are banks, merchant banks, securities houses and other qualified financial institutions. Banks send messages to one another on the Swift system using formats known as MTs (Message Types) numbered from MT100 to MT999, each for a different purpose.

SWIFT MT-103 – RAPID COMMUNICATION BETWEEN BANKS: MT103 is the format banks use when they effect what is known to a layman as a wire transfer, cable transfer, telegraphic transfer or Swift transfer.

Suppose A has an account with Bank X and he needs to transfer money to B whose account is with Bank Y in another country. A goes to Bank X, fills out a remittance form with all particulars. Bank X debits A’s account and sends a Swift MT103 to Bank Y. Bank Y debits Bank X and credits B’s account and advises B that it has received a remittance.

MT103 is a definite, authenticated, unconditional transfer of funds. In the above example Bank Y must credit B’s account, nothing more nothing less. There is no such thing as a Conditional MT103.It’s another brokerspeak.

SWIFT MT-760 – RAPID COMMUNICATION BETWEEN BANKS: This is a message type “SWIFT” that is sometimes requested in trade in cement, because it works well as a bank guarantee, although it carries with it a much higher level of risk to the issuer (usually the buyer) and a reduced level of risk for the recipient (the seller). Essentially, the “MT-760” is a “SWIFT”, which ensures that a bank will pay on behalf of a client of another bank. When a “MT-760 is issued, the issuing bank makes a lock on behalf of his client, thereby ensuring that funds are available to make payment to the beneficiary of the” MT-760.

SWIFT MT-799 – RAPID COMMUNICATION BETWEEN BANKS: MT-799 is a type of SWIFT free format, in which a bank confirms that there is availability of funds to cover a potential negotiation. This can sometimes be used as an irrevocable, depending on the language used in the MT-799, but is not a promise of payment or any other form of bank guarantee in its standard format. The function of MT-799 is simply to assure the seller that the buyer has the funds necessary to complete the operation.

MT-799 is usually issued before a contract is signed and before a letter of credit or bank guarantee is issued. Once the MT-799 being received by the bank of the seller, then it is time for the bank to send the seller a POP (proof of product) to the buyer’s bank, at which time trading has actually started.

MT-799 is an automated message sent electronically from one bank to another, so you will not actually “see” an MT-799. The paperwork associated with an MT-799 will vary from bank to bank, but most follow a similar process.


TLC – TRANSFERABLE LETTER OF CREDIT: It is a letter of credit that the beneficiary can use to transfer a portion of funds from the letter of credit to third parties. This is commonly used in the case of sellers to pay their suppliers late.

TRANSFERABLE – TRANSFERABLE LETTER OF CREDIT: Is issued on behalf of a beneficiary who is not who produces the goods, but an intermediate, which established a sales contract with a buyer but depends on a third party, the exporter, for the supply of goods to the customer. Particularly suitable for negotiating the Company’s business of international trade intermediary.

TT – TELEX TRANSFER: Often shortened to “TT” is an electronic means of transferring funds abroad from bank to bank. The transfer fee is collected when sending money.


Basics rules for undertake on your own.

Original text: Emprendedores.

It certainly does not ensure future success, but significantly reduces risks and increases the possibilities our company to develop, grow and multiply in good health.

Innovative ideas that require minimal investment with own resources, rapidly deployable, fixed costs to a minimum and control of receipts and payments to generate cash … Those are the golden rules to undertake alone. Do not forget, if you want your business to grow.

Javier Escudero

In normal-read, live with a favorable economic climate and buoyant, ideally undertaken by chance. It certainly does not ensure future success, but significantly reduces risks and increases the possibilities that our company develops grow and multiply in good health.


But clearly the current situation is very different and the need to generate resources for living has forced many-there are no accurate official figures, but logic says- they need to be undertaken by, especially many who are unemployed after the companies they worked for closed or reduced staff.

And as entrepreneurs, by tradition, we are very positive and optimistic, we also support this second group of entrepreneurs. Nor is worth recalling a series of basic rules to keep in mind if you start up (always, and if you do out of necessity).

1 .- Avoid the rush.You need to generate resources to live does not mean you rush into decisions to make. Embark, yes, but with much head. Analyzes the market and seek primarily a need for cover or a complementary service that adds value to a product / service already exists.

2 .- Avoid placing a business ‘more of the same,’for sure ‘others’ have thought like you.For example, focus on emerging markets

3 .- Slowly but surely.Find a business fast and easy implementation. DO NOT MESS in philosophical ramblings about the idea and do not hesitate to whether or not it is time to undertake. Remember you have maid up your mind now and it is best to forget the doubts. Focus 100% on implementation, not in your spare time. It is now!

4 .- Minimum Investment.Unless you have inherited a fortune, think of a business that requires a minimum initial investment.

5 .- Debt zero.Undertake with own resources and if you have to ask for money make it small, a family member or a trusted friend that offers some freedom back.

6 .- and money for later.Important, do not forget to calculate how much and how to get money to keep on once the business starts to walk.

7 .- Fixed costs, to a minimum.Make accounts and more accounts and look up under rocks. Reduce fixed costs of your business to a minimum. You can outsource everything except your core business, of course. That is sacred. Focus on that and the rest can be outplaced.

8 .- Alone?Remember that you undertake alone, but that does not mean that you can not look for collaboration and partnerships in other entrepreneurs like you. Together it will be easier and cheaper. There are many ways to colaaborate. Choose the one that best suites to you.

9 .- Receipts and payments.That is the key. Control to very detail all your customers. Calculate the time between receipts and payments and try to be as close as possible. This will ensure liquidity and calm to meet the challenges that arise.

10 .- Anticipate.Take time to keep you informed of all market trends and develope plans B to help you turn when the wind shifts.

11 .- Do not isolate yourself.Do not isolate yourself in your business. Go out and meet other entrepreneurs. There are many forums for entrepreneurs, both online and face to face. Take advantage of contacts to exchange ideas and experiences and, why not share customers. This will contribute to the bigger market and business opportunities are greater for all and for you, too.


The first tip is that you undertake in a market that you know,especially not to waste time researching new ones so you have no surprises.But as there is a rule, look for opportunities everywhere. Where can you find ideas?:

In your experience, your education and your hobbies.Listen to ideas from your immediate environment. Unmet needs in general and, by default, in the market where you previously have operated or know a priori. If you know or you position youself in a sector, look at what the competition is doing to improve it, and also look at what does not. Analyze business lines that large companies have left and their feasibility studies.

Adapt ideas that work in other sectors and / or national and international markets.Study the potential opportunities that might arise from future legislative changes and / or social.
Very important: stay constantly informed (not just newspapers, but also studies and reports). Listen and watch everything being said and happening around you. And, first, do not reject any idea.

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